Will a 120V DC system be enough?

I am just starting and planning out my conversion of a 1996 S-10 pickup truck. I only need it to go 55-60 mph (65 mph is the top speed on one highway close by that I will probably not need to drive on much). Most of my trips will be under 10 miles round-trip. And I would like the 80% discharge range to be around 30 miles, although I could live with it being 20 miles.

So, by looking at a 120V system and a 144V system, it looks like the 144V system would cost about $500-$750 more. Would I need this in order to get decent acceleration? Or am I worried about nothing and 120V will work just fine.

Find out what the highest voltage your motor is rated for and plan to run at that voltage. If it will work at 144 volts go with that voltage, you will not be sorry. Other factors that influence your decision is the battery size. EV America has a video available for converting the s-10 for around 300 dollars.